see Italy (disambiguation). "Italia" and "Italian Republic" - Chevrolet Volt Forums: Chevy Volt Forum
 
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see Italy (disambiguation). "Italia" and "Italian Republic"

This article is about the republic. For other uses, see Italy (disambiguation).
"Italia" and "Italian Republic" redirect here. For other uses, see Italia (disambiguation). For the short-lived 19th-century state, see Italian Republic (Napoleonic).
Italian Republic
Repubblica italiana (Italian)

Flag Emblem
Anthem: Il Canto degli Italiani (Italian)
"The Song of the Italians"
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Location of Italy (dark green)– in Europe (light green & dark grey)– in the European Union (light green) – [Legend]
Location of Italy (dark green)

– in Europe (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (light green) – [Legend]
Capital
and largest city Rome
41°54′N 12°29′E
Official languages Italiana
Demonym Italian
Government Unitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
- President Sergio Mattarella
- Prime Minister Matteo Renzi
Legislature Parliament
- Upper house Senate
- Lower house Chamber of Deputies
Formation
- Unification 17 March 1861
- Republic 2 June 1946
- Founded the EEC (now the European Union) 1 January 1958
Area
- Total 301,338 km2 (72nd)
116,347 sq mi
- Water (%) 2.4
Population
- 2014 estimate 60,795,612[1] (23rd)
- 2011 census 59,433,744[2] (23rd)
- Density 201.7/km2 (63rd)
522.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
- Total $2.157 trillion[3] (12th)
- Per capita $35,811[3] (32nd)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
- Total $1.843 trillion[3] (8th)
- Per capita $30,594[3] (27th)
Gini (2011) 31.9[4]
medium
HDI (2013) Steady 0.872[5]
very high · 26th
Currency Euro (€)b (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
- Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code 39c
ISO 3166 code IT
Internet TLD .itd
a. French is co-official in the Aosta Valley; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste and the province of Gorizia; German and Ladin are co-official in South Tyrol.
b. Before 2002, the Italian Lira. The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia, but the official currency there is the Swiss Franc.[6]
c. To call Campione d'Italia, it is necessary to use the Swiss code +41.
d. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Italy (Listeni/ˈɪtəli/; Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] ( listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica italiana),[7][8][9][10] is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.[note 1] Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a largely temperate climate; due to its shape, it is often referred to in Italy as lo Stivale (the Boot).[11][12] With 61 million inhabitants, it is the 4th most populous EU member state. Italy is a highly developed country[13] and has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the world.[14]

Since ancient times Etruscan, Magna Graecia and other cultures have flourished in the territory of present-day Italy, being eventually absorbed by Rome, that has for centuries remained the leading political and religious centre of Western civilisation, capital of the Roman Empire and Christianity. During the Dark Ages, the Italian Peninsula faced calamitous invasions by barbarian tribes, but beginning around the 11th century, numerous Italian city-states rose to great prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots in medieval Italy).[15] Especially during The Renaissance, Italian culture thrived, producing scholars, artists, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. Italian explorers such as Polo, Columbus, Vespucci, and Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy would remain fragmented into many warring states for the rest of the Middle Ages, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers such as France, Spain, and later Austria. Italy would thus enter a long period of decline that lasted until the mid 19th century.

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After various unsuccessful attempts, the second and the third wars for Italian independence resulted in the unification of most of present-day Italy between 1859–66.[16] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the new Kingdom of Italy rapidly industrialised and acquired a colonial empire becoming a Great Power.[17][18] However, Southern and rural Italy remained largely excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite victory in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, which favoured the establishment of a Fascist dictatorship in 1922. The subsequent participation in World War II at the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and civil war. In the years that followed, Italy abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, thus becoming one of the most developed nations[5][19][20][21] and the 5th largest economy in the world by 1990.[22]

Italy plays a prominent role in European and global military, cultural and diplomatic affairs.[23] It is also considered to be a major regional power.[24][25][26] Italy is one of the founding and leading member of the European Union. Italy is a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the DAC, the WTO, the G6, G7, G8, G10, G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, the Central European Initiative, the ASEM and the Uniting for Consensus.
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